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Remember the 2008 Universal fire? What MUSIC was lost?

Discussion in 'Music' started by MielR, Jun 11, 2019.

  1. MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    I think many here remember the 2008 Universal "vault" fire that destroyed many films and videotapes, but apparently, a lot of music masters were also lost as well. What is most disturbing, is that UMG still doesn't seem to have a precise grasp on what was lost, or at least they're not saying, if they do.

    From Variety: "...the fire, which took place on June 1, 2008 on the backlot of Universal Studios Hollywood, destroyed 'almost all of the master recordings stored in the vault … including those produced by some of the most famous musicians since the 1940s, [likely including] masters by Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Al Jolson, Bing Crosby, Ella Fitzgerald and Judy Garland; as well as some of Chuck Berry’s greatest recordings, the masters of some of Aretha Franklin’s first appearances on record, almost of all of Buddy Holly’s masters and John Coltrane’s masters in the Impulse Records collection. ' "

    And that's just for starters!

    Full Variety article here: https://variety.com/2019/music/news/universal-music-disputes-severity-2008-vault-fire-new-york-times-1203239661/

    NYT article here: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/11/magazine/universal-fire-master-recordings.html

    Massive cover-up? Negligence? Probably both.
     
  2. atcolomb

    atcolomb Screenwriter

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    Surprised there was a vault fire to begin with. You would think there would be the best fire prevention system set up to prevent or minimalize the fire.
     
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  3. LouA

    LouA Screenwriter

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    Just amazing that so little care was taken to safeguard our musical heritage.
     
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  4. MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    Shocking, isn't it?! You think there would have at least been a sprinkler system. It's scary how incompetent those are who are supposed to be the guardians of such important pieces of human culture.

    It reminds me of the stories of how 20th Century Fox threw movie reels (sometimes the only known copies) of old silents onto bonfires to make space on their shelves (and recover some of the silver from the nitrate prints in the process).
     
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  5. Message #5 of 19 Jun 12, 2019
    Last edited: Jun 12, 2019
    MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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  6. MatthewA

    MatthewA Lead Actor

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    30 Rock
    had Jack Welch Donaghy make a joke to this effect around the time it happened.

    If only that had been all it was.
     
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  7. Message #7 of 19 Jun 12, 2019
    Last edited: Jun 13, 2019
    MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    If only.

    I remember at the time, TV news reports of the damage to the Back To The Future courthouse set, but then later, reports started to trickle in about lost film reels and videotape masters for various TV shows.

    But the music loss is just mind boggling. The entire catalogue masters for some artists were lost, and what's even more amazing is that the artists themselves were not even notified. I'm sure that is due in large part to wanting to cover their rear ends, but also because their inventory system was nearly non-existent, so if they look for a master of a particular album and can't find it (like in the case of The Beastie Boys and Steely Dan)...well, maybe it was misplaced...or maybe it went up in flames.

    Here's a list of some of the known labels/artists/titles affected:

    LABELS:

    MCA
    ABC
    A&M
    Geffen
    Interscope
    Impulse
    Chess (nearly everything)
    Decca
    Peacock
    Probe
    AVI Records (entire catalog)

    ARTISTS:

    Buddy Holly (entire catalog)
    Moms Mabley (Chess)
    John Coltrane (Impulse Records)
    Chuck Berry (Chess)
    Aretha Franklin (Chess appearances)
    Muddy Waters (Chess)
    Howlin’ Wolf (Chess)
    Willie Dixon (Chess)
    Bo Diddley (Chess)
    Etta James (Chess)
    John Lee Hooker (Chess)
    Buddy Guy (Chess)
    Little Walter (Chess)
    Duke Ellington (Impulse)
    Count Basie (Impulse)
    Coleman Hawkins (Impulse)
    Dizzy Gillespie (Impulse)
    Max Roach (Impulse)
    Art Blakey (Impulse)
    Sonny Rollins (Impulse)
    Charles Mingus (Impulse)
    Ornette Coleman (Impulse)
    Alice Coltrane (Impulse)
    Sun Ra (Impulse)
    Albert Ayler (Impulse)
    Pharoah Sanders (Impulse)


    TITLES & MISC.:


    Steely Dan (album multi-tracks, outtakes, unreleased material)
    Bill Haley and His Comets - “Rock Around the Clock”
    Etta James - “At Last”
    Kingsmen - “Louie Louie.”
    Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats - “Rocket 88”
    Bo Diddley - “Bo Diddley/I’m A Man”
    The Impressions - “People Get Ready”
    Don Bennett - “The Prince Teddy Album”

    SINGLES & ENTIRE ALBUMS:


    Billie Holiday (Decca)
    Louis Armstrong (Decca)
    Duke Ellington (Decca)
    Al Jolson (Decca)
    Bing Crosby (Decca)
    Ella Fitzgerald (Decca)
    Judy Garland (Decca)
    Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five (Decca)
    Patsy Cline (Decca)
    Liberace
    Ray Charles
    B.B. King
    The Four Tops
    Joan Baez
    Neil Diamond
    Sonny and Cher
    Joni Mitchell
    Cat Stevens
    Gladys Knight and the Pips
    Al Green
    Elton John
    Eric Clapton
    Jimmy Buffett
    The Eagles
    Aerosmith
    Rufus and Chaka Khan
    Barry White
    Patti LaBelle
    Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
    The Police
    Sting
    Steve Earle
    R.E.M.
    Janet Jackson
    Guns N’ Roses
    Mary J. Blige
    No Doubt
    Nine Inch Nails
    Snoop Dogg
    Nirvana (including unreleased material)
    Beck
    Sheryl Crow
    Tupac Shakur
    Eminem
    50 Cent
    The Roots
    Benny Goodman
    Cab Calloway
    The Andrews Sisters
    The Ink Spots
    The Mills Brothers
    Lionel Hampton
    Ray Charles
    Sister Rosetta Tharpe
    Clara Ward
    Sammy Davis Jr.
    Les Paul
    Fats Domino
    Big Mama Thornton
    Burl Ives
    The Weavers
    Kitty Wells
    Ernest Tubb
    Lefty Frizzell
    Loretta Lynn
    George Jones
    Merle Haggard
    Bobby (Blue) Bland
    Ike Turner
    Quincy Jones
    Burt Bacharach
    The Mamas and the Papas
    Captain Beefheart
    The Flying Burrito Brothers
    Lynyrd Skynyrd
    Don Henley
    Iggy Pop
    Yoko Ono
    Sting
    George Strait
    Eric B. and Rakim
    New Edition
    Bobby Brown
    Queen Latifah
    Sonic Youth
    Soundgarden
    Hole
     
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  8. MatthewA

    MatthewA Lead Actor

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    This is criminal negligence on a grand scale. I wish we could send someone to jail over it.
     
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  9. Message #9 of 19 Jun 13, 2019
    Last edited: Jun 13, 2019
    MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    Me too.

    I'm just wondering if there's going to be some kind of lawsuit filed by the artists whose catalogues were
    affected?

    My dad recorded an album for MGM in the 1950s, and I found out several years ago that UMG had acquired the rights to that album (and also some singles) during of their many merger-acquisitions. I was hoping that maybe one day I could buy the rights and the masters from them (just for sentimental reasons, not for any anticipated monetary gain)...but who knows if the masters even exist anymore? They may have burned up in that fire, or they may have even been thrown in the trash years ago. Either way, with UMG's shoddy record-keeping, they probably wouldn't even know.

    I understand it's now down to 3 companies that basically own our musical heritage: UMG, Sony and Warner. Let's hope the latter two are doing a better job of protecting it.
     
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  10. Malcolm R

    Malcolm R Executive Producer

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    Doubtful, as I think the labels own the masters so I don't think the artists can sue for any loss. If all the labels are under the Universal Music Group umbrella, I don't think anyone would have standing to sue as it would be Universal's own property that was lost.
     
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  11. Message #11 of 19 Jun 13, 2019
    Last edited: Jun 13, 2019
    MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    True, but perhaps they could sue for loss of future compensation. When/if the next "super-duper mega-ultra high-rez" consumer format comes out, and these artists' catalogues can't be re-mastered to meet that standard, they might possibly have a case.

    With dead artists like Billie Holiday, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, etc., I guess UMG would be safe unless there's an estate rep or relative that would have interest in suing.
     
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  12. JohnMor

    JohnMor Producer
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    Imagine any unreleased recordings lost, because they would not have existed in any other form but those masters.

    The negligence is staggering, but really surprising.
     
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  13. MatthewA

    MatthewA Lead Actor

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    You'd think that by 2008, every major studio/recording company would have had a standard operational procedure for this sort of thing.

    Unless they duplicated any of this digitally and stored it on the East Coast, it's gone.
     
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  14. Message #14 of 19 Jun 14, 2019
    Last edited: Jun 14, 2019
    MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    The fact that these recordings were stored in anything less than fireproof vaults with a backup sprinkler system, is mind-boggling. An archivist/curator should have been actively compiling and keeping a detailed inventory (and NOT in an on-site 3-ring binder), and why the hell did they allow the roofer to use a blowtorch?! These tapes should have been treated like the dead-sea scrolls, and if UMG didn't want to do it, they should have at least had the decency to let somebody else take over.

    On some level I'm surprised by the lack of care of some of our greatest musical treasures...but on another level, I'm not. The major movie studios have a long history of not only negligence, but willful destruction, and why should their music branches be any different? Corporate greed, ignorance, skewed priorities...they all play in.

    I love the "preservation is our highest priority" quote! It would be hilarious if it weren't so damn sad.
     
  15. Thomas Newton

    Thomas Newton Screenwriter

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    The studios should fall on their knees and give thanks for the existence of CDs and the ease of extracting music from them. There may be a lot of stuff that was lost in the fire in terms of unreleased material, or in terms of the chance to do future remastering.

    However, released CDs are essentially a massive, world-wide, distributed backup that could be used to recover from some of this negligence. For instance, there was a Muddy Waters / Chess CD box set that might contain some songs from lost master recordings. The studio would only need to borrow one of the copies of that box set to have a chance to recover those songs. Granted, they'd all be mixed down to two tracks, but that might be better than losing them entirely.
     
  16. Message #16 of 19 Jul 6, 2019
    Last edited: Jul 6, 2019
    MielR

    MielR Advanced Member

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    More fallout:
    https://www.vanityfair.com/style/2019/07/taylor-swift-universal-backlot-fire-master-recordings

    "Within days, the estates of Tom Petty and Tupac Shakur, along with counsel for the band Soundgarden, filed a class action suit against the company, arguing that, among many things, copyright law necessarily demands that the owners of the masters care for them....Sensing a threat from the publicity, UMG sprung into action almost immediately and announced a new team of 70 archivists and other recording professionals who would work to be transparent with artists about what was actually lost in the 2008 fire. Since then, numerous artists have come forward to say they lost masters, including Sheryl Crow and Bryan Adams."

    https://variety.com/2019/music/news/universal-fire-list-artists-tapes-destroyed-new-york-times-1203253136/


    "Sheryl Crow reacted in an interview with the BBC, saying she now believes all her pre-2008 master tapes had been destroyed in the fire. “

    “It absolutely grieves me,” said Crow. “...I can’t understand, first and foremost, how you could store anything in a vault that didn’t have sprinklers. And secondly, I can’t understand how you could make safeties [back-up copies] and have them in the same vault. I mean, what’s the point? And thirdly, I can’t understand how it’s been 11 years. I mean, I don’t understand the cover-up.”


    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/25/magazine/universal-music-fire-bands-list-umg.html


    A more comprehensive (but still only partial) list of what is likely lost:

    38 Special
    50 Cent
    Colonel Abrams
    Johnny Ace
    Bryan Adams
    Nat Adderley
    Aerosmith
    Rhett Akins
    Manny Albam
    Lorez Alexandria
    Gary Allan
    Red Allen
    Steve Allen
    The Ames Brothers
    Gene Ammons
    Bill Anderson
    Jimmy Anderson
    John Anderson
    The Andrews Sisters
    Lee Andrews & the Hearts
    Paul Anka
    Adam Ant
    Toni Arden
    Joan Armatrading
    Louis Armstrong
    Asia
    Asleep at the Wheel
    Audioslave
    Patti Austin
    Average White Band
    Hoyt Axton
    Albert Ayler
    Burt Bacharach
    Joan Baez
    Razzy Bailey
    Chet Baker
    Florence Ballard
    Hank Ballard
    Gato Barbieri
    Baja Marimba Band
    Len Barry
    Count Basie
    Fontella Bass
    The Beat Farmers
    Sidney Bechet and His Orchestra
    Beck
    Captain Beefheart
    Archie Bell & the Drells
    Vincent Bell
    Bell Biv Devoe
    Louie Bellson
    Don Bennett
    Joe Bennett and the Sparkletones
    David Benoit
    George Benson
    Berlin
    Elmer Bernstein and His Orchestra
    Chuck Berry
    Nuno Bettencourt
    Stephen Bishop
    Blackstreet
    Art Blakey
    Hal Blaine
    Bobby (Blue) Bland
    Mary J. Blige
    Blink 182
    Blues Traveler
    Eddie Bo
    Pat Boone
    Boston
    Connee Boswell
    Eddie Boyd
    Jan Bradley
    Owen Bradley Quintet
    Oscar Brand
    Bob Braun
    Walter Brennan
    Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats
    Teresa Brewer
    Edie Brickell & New Bohemians
    John Brim
    Lonnie Brooks
    Big Bill Broonzy and Washboard Sam
    Brothers Johnson
    Bobby Brown
    Clarence “Gatemouth” Brown
    Lawrence Brown
    Les Brown
    Marion Brown
    Marshall Brown
    Mel Brown
    Michael Brown
    Dave Brubeck
    Jimmy Buffett
    Carol Burnett
    T-Bone Burnett
    Dorsey Burnette
    Johnny Burnette
    Busta Rhymes
    Terry Callier
    Cab Calloway
    The Call
    Glen Campbell
    Captain and Tennille
    Captain Sensible
    Irene Cara
    Belinda Carlisle
    Carl Carlton
    Eric Carmen
    Hoagy Carmichael
    Kim Carnes
    Karen Carpenter
    Richard Carpenter
    The Carpenters
    Barbara Carr
    Betty Carter
    Benny Carter
    The Carter Family
    Peter Case
    Alvin Cash
    Mama Cass
    Bobby Charles
    Ray Charles
    Chubby Checker
    The Checkmates Ltd.
    Cheech & Chong
    Cher
    Don Cherry
    Mark Chesnutt
    The Chi-Lites
    Eric Clapton
    Petula Clark
    Roy Clark
    Gene Clark
    The Clark Sisters
    Merry Clayton
    Jimmy Cliff
    Patsy Cline
    Rosemary Clooney
    Wayne Cochran
    Joe Cocker
    Ornette Coleman
    Gloria Coleman
    Mitty Collier
    Jazzbo Collins
    Judy Collins
    Colosseum
    Alice Coltrane
    John Coltrane
    Colours
    Common
    Cookie and the Cupcakes
    Barbara Cook
    Rita Coolidge
    Stewart Copeland
    The Corsairs
    Dave “Baby” Cortez
    Bill Cosby
    Don Costa
    Clifford Coulter
    David Crosby
    Crosby & Nash
    Johnny Cougar (aka John Cougar Mellencamp)
    Counting Crows
    Coverdale•Page
    Warren Covington
    Deborah Cox
    James “Sugar Boy” Crawford
    Crazy Otto
    Marshall Crenshaw
    The Crew-Cuts
    Sonny Criss
    David Crosby
    Bob Crosby
    Bing Crosby
    Sheryl Crow
    Rodney Crowell
    The Crusaders
    Xavier Cugat
    The Cuff Links
    Tim Curry
    The Damned
    Danny & the Juniors
    Rodney Dangerfield
    Bobby Darin
    Helen Darling
    David + David
    Mac Davis
    Richard Davis
    Sammy Davis Jr.
    Chris de Burgh
    Lenny Dee
    Jack DeJohnette
    The Dells
    The Dell-Vikings
    Sandy Denny
    Sugar Pie DeSanto
    The Desert Rose Band
    Dennis DeYoung
    Neil Diamond
    Bo Diddley
    Difford & Tilbrook
    Dillard & Clark
    The Dixie Hummingbirds
    Willie Dixon
    DJ Shadow
    Fats Domino
    Jimmy Donley
    Kenny Dorham
    Jimmy Dorsey and His Orchestra
    Lee Dorsey
    The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra
    Lamont Dozier
    The Dramatics
    The Dream Syndicate
    Roy Drusky
    Jimmy Durante
    Deanna Durbin
    The Eagles
    Steve Earle
    El Chicano
    Danny Elfman
    Yvonne Elliman
    Duke Ellington
    Cass Elliott
    Joe Ely
    John Entwistle
    Eminem
    Eric B. and Rakim
    Gil Evans
    Paul Evans
    Betty Everett
    Don Everly
    Extreme
    The Falcons
    Harold Faltermeyer
    Donna Fargo
    Art Farmer
    Freddie Fender
    Ferrante & Teicher
    Fever Tree
    The Fifth Dimension
    Ella Fitzgerald
    Five Blind Boys Of Alabama
    The Fixx
    The Flamingos
    King Floyd
    The Flying Burrito Brothers
    John Fogerty
    Red Foley
    Eddie Fontaine
    The Four Aces
    The Four Tops
    Peter Frampton
    Franke & the Knockouts
    Aretha Franklin
    The Rev. C.L. Franklin
    The Free Movement
    Glenn Frey
    Lefty Frizzell
    Curtis Fuller
    Jerry Fuller
    Lowell Fulson
    Harvey Fuqua
    Nelly Furtado
    Hank Garland
    Judy Garland
    Erroll Garner
    Jimmy Garrison
    Larry Gatlin & the Gatlin Brothers
    Gene Loves Jezebel
    Barry Gibb
    Georgia Gibbs
    Terri Gibbs
    Dizzy Gillespie
    Gin Blossoms
    Tompall Glaser
    Tom Glazer
    Whoopi Goldberg
    Golden Earring
    Paul Gonsalves
    Benny Goodman
    Dexter Gordon
    Rosco Gordon
    Lesley Gore
    The Gospelaires
    Teddy Grace
    Grand Funk Railroad
    Amy Grant
    Earl Grant
    The Grass Roots
    Dobie Gray
    Buddy Greco
    Keith Green
    Al Green
    Jack Greene
    Robert Greenidge
    Lee Greenwood
    Patty Griffin
    Nanci Griffith
    Dave Grusin
    Guns N’ Roses
    Buddy Guy
    Buddy Hackett
    Charlie Haden
    Merle Haggard
    Bill Haley and His Comets
    Aaron Hall
    Lani Hall
    Chico Hamilton
    George Hamilton IV
    Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds
    Marvin Hamlisch
    Jan Hammer
    Lionel Hampton
    John Handy
    Glass Harp
    Slim Harpo
    Richard Harris
    Freddie Harts
    Dan Hartman
    Johnny Hartman
    Coleman Hawkins
    Dale Hawkins
    Richie Havens
    Roy Haynes
    Head East
    Heavy D. & the Boyz
    Bobby Helms
    Don Henley
    Clarence “Frogman” Henry
    Woody Herman and His Orchestra
    Milt Herth and His Trio
    John Hiatt
    Al Hibbler
    Dan Hicks and the Hot Licks
    Monk Higgins
    Jessie Hill
    Earl Hines
    Roger Hodgson
    Hole
    Billie Holiday
    Jennifer Holliday
    Buddy Holly
    The Hollywood Flames
    Eddie Holman
    John Lee Hooker
    Stix Hooper
    Bob Hope
    Paul Horn
    Shirley Horn
    Big Walter Horton
    Thelma Houston
    Rebecca Lynn Howard
    Jan Howard
    Freddie Hubbard
    Humble Pie
    Engelbert Humperdinck
    Brian Hyland
    The Impressions
    The Ink Spots
    Iron Butterfly
    Burl Ives
    Janet Jackson
    Joe Jackson
    Milt Jackson
    Ahmad Jamal
    Etta James
    Elmore James
    James Gang
    Keith Jarrett
    Jason & the Scorchers
    Jawbreaker
    Garland Jeffreys
    Beverly Jenkins
    Gordon Jenkins
    The Jets
    Jimmy Eat World
    Jodeci
    Johnnie Joe
    The Joe Perry Project
    Elton John
    J.J. Johnson
    K-Ci & JoJo
    Al Jolson
    Booker T. Jones
    Elvin Jones
    George Jones
    Hank Jones
    Jack Jones
    Marti Jones
    Quincy Jones
    Rickie Lee Jones
    Tamiko Jones
    Tom Jones
    Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five
    The Jordanaires
    Jurassic 5
    Bert Kaempfert
    Kitty Kallen & Georgie Shaw
    The Kalin Twins
    Bob Kames
    Kansas
    Boris Karloff
    Sammy Kaye
    Toby Keith
    Gene Kelly
    Chaka Khan
    B.B. King
    The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
    Wayne King
    The Kingsmen
    The Kingston Trio
    Roland Kirk
    Eartha Kitt
    John Klemmer
    Klymaxx
    Baker Knight
    Chris Knight
    Gladys Knight and the Pips
    Krokus
    Steve Kuhn
    Rolf Kuhn
    Joachim Kuhn
    Patti LaBelle
    L.A. Dream Team
    Frankie Laine
    Lambert, Hendricks & Ross
    Denise LaSalle
    Yusef Lateef
    Steve Lawrence
    Steve Lawrence & Eydie Gormé
    Lafayette Leake
    Brenda Lee
    Laura Lee
    Leapy Lee
    Peggy Lee
    Danni Leigh
    The Lennon Sisters
    J.B. Lenoir
    Ramsey Lewis
    Jerry Lee Lewis
    Jerry Lewis
    Meade Lux Lewis
    Liberace
    Lifehouse
    Enoch Light
    The Lightning Seeds
    Limp Bizkit
    Lisa Loeb
    Little Axe and the Golden Echoes
    Little Milton
    Little River Band
    Little Walter
    Lobo
    Nils Lofgren
    Lone Justice
    Guy Lombardo
    Lord Tracy
    The Louvin Brothers
    Love
    Patti Loveless
    The Lovelites
    Lyle Lovett
    Love Unlimited
    Loretta Lynn
    L.T.D.
    Lynyrd Skynyrd
    Gloria Lynne
    Moms Mabley
    Willie Mabon
    Warner Mack
    Dave MacKay & Vicky Hamilton
    Miriam Makeba
    The Mamas and the Papas
    Melissa Manchester
    Barbara Mandrell
    Chuck Mangione
    Shelly Manne
    Wade Marcus
    Mark-Almond
    Pigmeat Markham
    Steve Marriott
    Wink Martindale
    Groucho Marx
    Hugh Masekela
    Dave Mason
    Jerry Mason
    Matthews Southern Comfort
    The Mavericks
    Robert Maxwell
    John Mayall
    Percy Mayfield
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  17. LeoA

    LeoA Cinematographer

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    Anyone happen to know what may be lost of Petula Clark's?

    I hope the Downtown master is at least safe. It was Warner Brothers released to the best of my knowledge in North America, so I'm assuming it wasn't one of their many holdings.
     
  18. MatthewA

    MatthewA Lead Actor

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    Reading that list of artists whose masters was lost felt like the casualty list scene from Gone with the Wind.

    That was one of my first thoughts, too, when I saw her name listed. The answer is complicated, so here goes.

    Petula Clark's "Downtown"-era years with songwriter/producer/arranger Tony Hatch were recorded for a UK label called Pye Records. They licensed it to Warner Bros. originally for the US, but their license expired after she left the label in 1971. The actual copyright to that and everything she recorded from that era ended up with a company called Sanctuary Records, and they were purchased by Universal in 2007, a year before the fire. However, this does not mean that the master tapes were ever moved to that vault or even out of the UK.

    It might not even be the Tony Hatch years. When she left Pye she went to MGM Records (where she recorded, among other things, a cover of Mary Wells' "My Guy" and the Sherman Brothers' "Gratifaction" from Tom Sawyer). That label ended up getting bought by PolyGram, whose assets did become part of Universal eventually.

    In the late 1990s, she recorded an album of standards called "Here For You" for Varese Sarabande. A member of this forum worked on it.

    Even researching who bought out what company is depressing when it's in this context. Now you know why I'm not too crazy about media consolidation.
     
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  19. willyTass

    willyTass Supporting Actor

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    upload_2019-7-12_21-53-11.
     

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