These are legal questions, so no political (especially historical) discussions please. I ask these questions because I wish to expand my knowlege about English and American law. a) I understand that "trial by jury" originated in England and is of Anglo-Saxon origin. It is the form of trial system we are familiar with today. Why is there a great regard for "trial by jury"? b) What makes the Magna Carta significant in the development of English and American law? c) What is "common" law? Is it simply law created by custom? What makes it different from codified law? d) Why is there a fear over a "standing" army among the English and eventually among Americans? Anyway, what is a "standing" army?