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Hsu Research STF-2 Subwoofer Test & Review


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#1 of 113 Edward J M

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Posted August 29 2004 - 08:25 AM

Hsu Research STF-2 Test & Review

By Ed Mullen

1) Introduction:

The STF series of subwoofers from Hsu Research are fixed tune units with the tuning frequency carefully chosen to provide an optimal balance of extension and output. These subs were designed for enthusiast who doesn’t need the more expensive variable tuning option offered on the VTF series. Hsu Research offers three STF models: The STF-3 (12” woofer), the STF-2 (10” woofer), and the STF-1 (8” woofer).

The STF-2 represents Hsu’s entry into the $400 subwoofer class, and is essentially a fixed tune version of the venerable VTF-2 operating in Maximum Extension mode. The rated extension of the STF-2 is 25 Hz +/-2 dB. Venting is accomplished with one flared (both ends) port, with an inner diameter of 3 inches and an outer flare diameter of 4-3/8 inches.

The STF-2 came with unpacking instructions, a well-written Owner’s Manual, a Quick Set-Up Guide (with plenty of diagrams) for HT applications. Warranty is 7 years on the subwoofer, and 2 years on electronics. For review purposes only, Dr. Hsu also provided me with a demo music CD, and a demo HT DVD.

The Hsu R&D and general headquarters is located in Anaheim, California. The STF-2 was designed and engineered in the United States, and built in China. The website is located at www.hsuresearch.com.

2) Size, Appearance, Fit & Finish:

The STF-2’s external dimensions are roughly 14" wide, 19" tall, and 18" deep, including the amplifier controls and the spiked plastic feet. The sub weighs about 40 pounds uncrated.

The plastic spiked feet on the STF-2 can vibrate on hard smooth surfaces (like my laminate flooring), so I used a rubberized welcome mat to prevent this from occurring. Owners could also use rubber furniture cups under the spiked feet. Either method is approved by Hsu Research.

The STF-2 cabinet has an external ridge on the top and bottom caps, and comes finished in a finely textured satin black vacuum-sealed vinyl coating. The coating application was uniform with no detectable surface defects. The vertical seam in the vinyl discretely runs along the backside of the subwoofer. The amp, woofer, and vent were well fitted.

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3) Amplifier Feature Set:

The rear flush-mounted digital BASH amp is rated at 200 watts continuous. Standard amp features include:

- Off/Auto-On/On
- Single Low Level Input
- Phase Control (0/180 switch)
- CV LPF (30-90 Hz 4th order with defeat switch)
- Replaceable Fuse
- Detachable Power Cord

4) Ground Plane Frequency Response Measurements:

In order to determine the quasi-anechoic frequency response, the STF-2 was placed outside, away from any reflective structures, and measured using ground plane techniques. Per the recommendation of Dr. Hsu, the STF-2 was laid on its side, with the woofer and vent equidistant from the mic. Measurements were conducted at 2 meters from the centerline of the subwoofer enclosure, with the low pass filter disabled, and the phase control set to 0 degrees.

FR sweeps were conducted at progressively increasing sound pressure levels until dynamic compression was noted. Dynamic compression is caused by a combination of thermal and mechanical driver limitations and port flow restriction.

Using 104 dB as a midpoint, the 2M GP FR curve measured an outstanding +/- 2 dB from 25-100 Hz. The response was –9 dB (95 dB) at 20 Hz. With respect to dynamic compression, the curve stayed linear up to 102-103 dB in the 25-40 Hz bandwidth.

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5) Ground Plane Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Testing:

Harmonic distortion occurs when harmonics (multiples) the fundamental signal are produced due to non-linear behavior of the electrical, magnetic, or mechanical mechanism of the driver. A subwoofer with low THD will sound clean and distinct. At the lowest frequencies, high THD means the listener will feel less of the true fundamental note, and hear more of the false harmonics.

Measurements were conducted at 2 meters from the centerline of the subwoofer enclosure. To calculate the 1 meter test values, add 6 dB to the 2 meter reading. THD was limited to 10% unless otherwise noted. With the exception of 22 Hz, test frequency spacing was at 1/3 octave intervals.

Equipment reviewer Tom Nousaine directly averages his dB values, providing equal weighting to all sound pressures. This method correlates well with our subjective impressions of subwoofer performance, and was therefore used in this review.

Output Linearity for a given bandwidth is calculated by dividing the average SPL by the maximum SPL and expressing the results as a percentage. A score of 100% means the subwoofer exhibits perfect output linearity across the given bandwidth.

STF-2 10% THD Ground Plane 2 Meters (add 6 dB to obtain 1 meter values):

20 Hz: 74.7 dB
22 Hz: 80.9 dB
25 Hz: 91.7 dB
32 Hz: 99.5 dB
40 Hz: 98.8 dB
50 Hz: 104.8 dB
63 Hz: 106.9 dB
80 Hz: 104.7 dB

20-80 Hz: Average 95.3 dB; Output Linearity 89%
22-80 Hz: Average 98.2 dB; Output Linearity 92%
25-80 Hz: Average 101.1 dB; Output Linearity 95%

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6) In-Room Frequency Response Measurements:

The in-room frequency response of a subwoofer is affected by things like room acoustics, the location of the listener, interaction with other speakers, and even the bass management circuit of the AVR. Experimentation with subwoofer placement and different listening positions is encouraged in order to obtain the best results in your own room.

To simulate a typical user set-up, the STF-2 was placed in the front corner of my 2,000 ft3 home theater room. For bass management, all speakers were set to small with a crossover of 80 Hz, and the STF-2 low pass filter was disabled. The phase was set to 0 degrees (this provided better results than 180 degrees). The in-room FR sweeps were processed through the AVR with only the main speakers and the STF-2 operating.

The in-room FR was measured at three popular listening positions, all about 12 feet from the STF-2. The three curves were then combined to create an average response curve. The three curve average is +/- 5 dB from 100-30 Hz, with good extension to about 23 Hz. There is some room gain in the bottom octave, which can help compensate for the human ear’s lack of sensitivity to very deep bass.

Posted Image

7) In-Room Maximum Output Levels:

The maximum in-room output from a subwoofer is strongly influenced by variables like room size and acoustics, boundary integrity, sub placement, the distance to the listening positions, and room gain.

To assess the maximum dynamic output from the STF-2, I conducted frequency response sweeps at the primary listening position at progressively increasing sound pressure levels until dynamic compression was noted. The STF-2 stayed linear up to about 108 dB. I also measured the distortion limited (10%) output at the listening position, and obtained 91 dB @ 20 Hz, 100 dB @ 25 Hz, and 103 dB @ 30 Hz.

Obviously, these test results are only valid in my particular room, but they should provide some indication of what to expect from the STF-2 in terms of dynamic output and clean deep bass levels in a mid-size room.

Equipment reviewer Don Keele has developed some guidelines for estimating maximum clean output from a subwoofer in a typical in-room environment. He takes the ground plane 10% THD output figures, and adds the following:

25 Hz + 8 dB
32 Hz + 6 dB
40 Hz + 5 dB
50 Hz + 4 dB

Whether the enthusiast should use the 2 meter or 1 meter ground plane data in Keele’s formula really depends on the room size and how far the subwoofer will be placed from the listening position. In my room, using the 2 meter ground plane data in the formula correlated well with my actual in-room measurements. In a smaller room with the subwoofer closer to the listener, using the 1 meter ground plane data in the formula might be more appropriate.

8) Subjective Impressions and SPL Levels For Home Theater DVD Movies:

To provide a real world indication of how loud the STF-2 can play in my mid-size HT room, I measured some sound pressure peaks from a few action-oriented DVDs.

I used an SPL meter (set to C-weighted Fast) at the listening position. The sound pressures listed are straight meter reads, with no correction factor applied. This is something the average HT enthusiast can try at home with a Radio Shack SPL meter.

For a given DVD, the playback volume was increased until minor distortion and compression artifacts were occasionally noted on the deepest and most challenging scenes. The average enthusiast (without any test gear) can rely on these audible warning signs that the subwoofer should not be pushed any harder.

If higher playback levels are desired, the STF-2 can be moved closer to the listening position (be sure to recalibrate). If moving the subwoofer closer is not a viable option, the enthusiast should consider the larger STF-3 or VTF-3.

My HT system is calibrated to Dolby Reference Level at master volume 0.0 with the Avia Guide To Home Theater DVD. Master volume settings are listed for reference purposes only.

a) Underworld (DD 5.1), Master Volume -15

Most of the bass in Underworld is in the 28-35 Hz region. The STF-2 can play loud and clean in this bandwidth, and felt very dynamic on this DVD. I was particularly impressed with its dynamics at 1:26:24, marking the end of a Sonja flashback scene.

Watery Grave (0:30:40-0:30:50): 105 dB
Sonja Condemned To Death (1:25:05): 101 dB
Sonja Condemned To Death (1:26:13-1:26:24): 105-108 dB
Sonja Condemned To Death (1:26:40): 104 dB
Endangered New Species (1:46:33): 102-103 dB

b) Matrix Revolutions (DD 5.1), Master Volume -7

Revolutions contains significantly deeper bass than Underworld, and the STF-2 occasionally missed infrasonics and lacked deep impact in certain scenes, but otherwise did a convincing job with this demanding DVD. At anything higher than Master Volume –7, the STF-2 started to sound uncomfortable on the APU stomp scene.

APU Stomp (0:59:02): 101 dB
Rumbling Before Dock Breach (1:02:42): 99-101 dB
Driller Hits Ground (1:03:20): 100 dB
APU's Firing (1:03:49): 97-98 dB (sustained)
Driller OutRigger Stomp (1:05:03): 101 dB
Kid Fires APU (1:19:17): 100 dB

c) LOTR-ROTK (DD-EX 5.1), Master Volume -9

The STF-2 delivered decent impact on the battering ram and spike ball scenes. It sounded a bit strained on the deep oliphant collision. The STF-2 partially captured the body and weight of Frodo's ultra deep heartbeat, but omitted the infrasonics and started to compress toward the end of this challenging scene.

Battering Ram Hits Door (1:46:45): 103 dB
Oliphant Stomping (2:04:20-2:04:23): 101 dB
Oliphants Collide (2:06:05): 102 dB
Witch King Spike Ball Hits Ground (2:10:10): 102 dB
Frodo's Beating Heart - Mount Doom (2:40:33-2:40:57): 97-99 dB

9) Subjective Music Evaluation:

a) Los Lonely Boys – Or Music, LLC / Sony Music Entertainment, 2003

There is plenty of aggressive electric bass guitar work on this Latino rock CD. The STF-2 sounded rich and resonant, with good distinction of notes and solid extension on low E (about 40 Hz).

b) Gladiator soundtrack - Hans Zimmer, Decca Records, 2000

This soundtrack remains one of my favorites for evaluating the musical capabilities of a subwoofer. Virtually the entire soundtrack is filled with deep, rich, and highly textured bass. The STF-2 handled Gladiator very well, playing all the varied bass notes with clarity, texture, and definition.

c) Led Zeppelin II - Atlantic Records, 1969 (1994 Digitally Remastered)

Moby Dick contains one of the best drum solos ever recorded. The STF-2 displayed excellent attack and impact on the drum strikes, sounding tympanic with just the right amount of decay and no detectable overhang.

d) Poem of Chinese Drum – Poems Of Thunder, Yim Hok-Man

This was a song from the music CD provided by Hsu Research. This mesmerizing cut contains dozens of deep and powerful drum strikes which the STF-2 handled easily, always sounding realistic and natural, without any boom or slop. The transition from the mains speakers was smooth and the STF-2 filled in the bottom octave nicely.

10) Summary And Conclusion:

The STF-2 is a really nice sounding subwoofer. One glance at the commendably flat quasi-anechoic frequency response will tell you that accuracy was Dr. Hsu’s first priority when he designed the STF-2.

The STF-2 can certainly play loud enough for any reasonable music application. On demanding and deep action-oriented DVDs, I reached its dynamic limits in a mid-size room at moderately loud playback levels (refer to sections 7 & 8 for details). If louder playback levels are desired, the STF-2 can be moved closer to the listening position, or a larger model like the STF-3 can be considered.

When operated within its clean limits, the STF-2 will reward the listener with smooth, well-defined bass and good in-room extension to 23 Hz, and represents an excellent value in the $400 subwoofer price class.
Ed Mullen
Director - Technology and Customer Relations

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"What we do in life, echoes in eternity."


#2 of 113 Craig Chase

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Posted August 29 2004 - 08:27 AM

Ed... This is getting to be habit... Nice review !
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#3 of 113 Matt_Smi

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Posted August 29 2004 - 09:35 AM

Awesome review Posted Image Being an STF-2 owner myself, I really enjoyed reading it!

#4 of 113 Richard_M

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Posted August 29 2004 - 09:40 AM

Ed...

Yet again you have excelled.

Congratulations, a fantastic review.
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#5 of 113 steve nn

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Posted August 29 2004 - 09:42 AM

Nicely done Ed.

Did you get a chance to try any kind of a scene that would require a very rapid response in succession with the STF-2?

#6 of 113 Edward J M

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Posted August 29 2004 - 09:59 AM

Thanks for the kind words, guys. I worked closely with Dr. Hsu on this review, and his input and suggestions were valuable and informative.

Quote:
Did you get a chance to try any kind of a scene that would require a very rapid response in succession with the STF-2?


Any specific suggestions, Steve? I thought the drum solo in Moby Dick and the Poem Of A Chinese Drum were good tests of transient response and the STF-2 did very well - good attack with no sloppy overhang or boom and realistic tympanics.
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#7 of 113 steve nn

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Posted August 29 2004 - 10:22 AM

good attack with no sloppy overhang or boom and realistic tympanics.
__________________________________________________ ____

From your review I would think so and most likely would handle a scene like (24-A call to arms) contained in the dvd PEARL HARBOR rather nicely? It's the heavy duty machine-gun scene.

#8 of 113 Edward J M

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Posted August 29 2004 - 11:04 AM

Quote:
From your review I would think so and most likely would handle a scene like (24-A call to arms) contained in the dvd PEARL HARBOR rather nicely? It's the heavy duty machine-gun scene.


Steve:

I just played that scene on the STF-2 and it did just fine. Good staccato and definition between each firing round.

Ed
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#9 of 113 steve nn

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Posted August 29 2004 - 11:23 AM

Good staccato and definition between each firing round.
__________________________________________________ _____

Thank you Ed. That was kind of you. Considering your impressions,history and measurements. I would think most to all would put their full confidence in your final assessment and rightly so.

(When operated within its clean limits, the STF-2 will reward the listener with smooth, well-defined bass and good in-room extension to 23 Hz, and represents an excellent value in the $400 subwoofer price class.)

#10 of 113 Robb Roy

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Posted August 29 2004 - 12:56 PM

Not that you need my approval, but very well done. If there were any doubts this sub is worth looking at in the $400 range, they can be erased.

-Robb

#11 of 113 Chu Gai

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Posted August 29 2004 - 01:47 PM

Other places could take a lesson from your work. So, was it ummmm....musical?

#12 of 113 terence

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Posted August 29 2004 - 04:11 PM

You have done it again Ed! Great review!
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#13 of 113 Ned

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Posted August 29 2004 - 05:55 PM

As a comparison (2m groundplane, 10% THD limit)

1 STF-2
20 Hz: 74.7 dB

1 PB2 Ultra (20hz tune)
20 Hz: 102.8 dB (9.4% THD amp limited)


Is the following progression correct?

1 STF-2
~75db @20hz 10% THD

2
81db

4
87db

8
93db

16
99db

32 STF-2's?
105db


At 50hz though, you only need about 2 of them for equivalent SPL's.

#14 of 113 Greg.R

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Posted August 29 2004 - 06:12 PM

It's hard to feel any better about my STF-2, but you bumped it a little Posted Image

Before the STF-2 I thought bass was neat, but it always gave me a headache. I can't stand more than 5 minutes of *boom**boom**boom* which is what 99% of the world apparently thinks composes bass, and all I had heard throughout my youth. Thanks to HSU I can finally enjoy bass like I always imagined: no headache, no fatigue, no BOOM.

#15 of 113 Edward J M

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Posted August 29 2004 - 10:19 PM

Quote:
Other places could take a lesson from your work. So, was it ummmm....musical?

Ha, a loaded question. But you already knew that, Chu. Posted Image

Was it musical? Sure, an accurate sub is a musical sub by default. All popular music I played on the STF-2 sounded natural and realistic.

Quote:
Before the STF-2 I thought bass was neat, but it always gave me a headache. I can't stand more than 5 minutes of *boom**boom**boom* which is what 99% of the world apparently thinks composes bass, and all I had heard throughout my youth. Thanks to HSU I can finally enjoy bass like I always imagined: no headache, no fatigue, no BOOM.

Boom is usually associated with a large peak in the 45-55 Hz region; the STF-2 displays none of that. I agree, the STF-2 always blends well with the mains and never draws undue attention to itself. It is easy to listen to for long periods of time without fatigue.
Ed Mullen
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#16 of 113 John Garcia

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Posted August 30 2004 - 05:07 AM

As always, great review Ed. I have been quite happy with my VTF-2 (in max extension) since I got it. The nice thing about the VTF-2 is that if you do have a larger room, you can at least try out max output mode - the sub tightens up a little while raising output levels, at the expense of some extension. I have noticed this sub struggle on the most demanding movie scenes (at higher SPLs) and some of my test music with some very low infrasonics - it doesn't omit them, but they are not so convincing in my relatively large room. That's why I'm still very interested in the PB-10 ISD...
HT: Emotiva UMC-200, Emotiva XPA-3, Carnegie Acoustics CSB-1s + CSC-1, GR Research A/V-1s, Epik Empire, Oppo BDP-105, PS4, PS3,URC R-50, APC-H10, Panamax 5100 Bluejeans Cable
System Two: Marantz PM7200, Pioneer FS52s, Panasonic BD79
(stolen) : Marantz SR-8300, GR Research A/V-2s, Sony SCD-222ES SACD, Panasonic BD-65, PS3 60G (250G)

Everybody is a genius, but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it’ll spend its whole life believing that it is stupid.” – Albert Einstein

 


#17 of 113 Edward J M

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Posted August 30 2004 - 07:06 AM

Quote:
I have noticed this sub struggle on the most demanding movie scenes (at higher SPLs) and some of my test music with some very low infrasonics - it doesn't omit them, but they are not so convincing in my relatively large room.

Hi John:

There are so many variables that go into how loud a sub can play in a given room. But the two biggies are definitely room size and the distance to the listening position. SPL varies inversely with the square of the distance, so placing the subwoofer closer can really help improve its output levels.

I think Hsu Research got the basic formula right with the STF-2; shoot for a flat FR and good extension first. Then get as much output as possible (at this price point) without sacrificing the first two criteria.

It's a tough balancing act, and if a given sub doesn't have enough clean output at the listening position in a particular room, you can either 1) move the sub closer, 2) buy another one, or 3) buy a bigger version.

I do know that individual tastes for music/movie playback levels vary greatly; what might be way too loud for one person is pretty tame to another.

That's why I try to breakdown maximum output levels at the listening position a few different ways and let each reader decide for himself whether it's sufficient:

1) Dynamic Compression Limit: 108 dB
2) 10% THD (Hz/dB): 20/91, 25/100, 30/103
3) DVD Peaks With C-weighted SPL Meter: 100-105 dB (most scenes)

You can see all of these numbers really fall neatly into the same ballpark, and when assessed in total do accurately characterize what the STF-2 is capable of in my own HT room.

If I moved the subwoofer to maybe 6 feet away, it would be a whole different ball game, and these numbers would probably all jump 5-6 dB. That would be equal to adding another STF-2 at 12 feet; so sometimes placement is a cheap fix. Posted Image
Ed Mullen
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"What we do in life, echoes in eternity."


#18 of 113 John Garcia

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Posted August 30 2004 - 07:47 AM

My sub is about 9' away. My problem is my room is almost perfectly square, except for the sloped vaulted ceiling, so I have a nice null on the left side of the couch, but good bass on the right (my side Posted Image ). I have tried 3 subs and more than a few orientations and positions, but I still get a serious dip at the seating position. Moving the couch isn't really an option either... Best spot for the sub in this room doesn't matter because I am pretty much limited in where I can actually place it. It's in a corner giving it some decent reinforcement, but the problem persists. A BFD might be the next step. I just calibrate it a little hot and it is still satisfying under 95% of circumstances Posted Image
HT: Emotiva UMC-200, Emotiva XPA-3, Carnegie Acoustics CSB-1s + CSC-1, GR Research A/V-1s, Epik Empire, Oppo BDP-105, PS4, PS3,URC R-50, APC-H10, Panamax 5100 Bluejeans Cable
System Two: Marantz PM7200, Pioneer FS52s, Panasonic BD79
(stolen) : Marantz SR-8300, GR Research A/V-2s, Sony SCD-222ES SACD, Panasonic BD-65, PS3 60G (250G)

Everybody is a genius, but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it’ll spend its whole life believing that it is stupid.” – Albert Einstein

 


#19 of 113 Steve Schaffer

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Posted August 30 2004 - 02:40 PM

Ed,
thanks for a very well written and fair review, I feel so much better now. I got my STF-2 back when CompUSA had 'em for $350 and feel like it's the second best bang for the buck item (next to my RS spl meter) in my entire system.

It's about the 4th or 5th sub I've owned, and among the cheapest, but is also the least boomy and most accurate sounding, definitely not tiring to listen to and capable of some real surprises.
Steve S.
I prefer not to push the subwoofers until they're properly run in.

#20 of 113 Edward J M

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Posted August 30 2004 - 11:35 PM

You're most welcome, Steve.

Quote:
It's about the 4th or 5th sub I've owned, and among the cheapest, but is also the least boomy and most accurate sounding, definitely not tiring to listen to and capable of some real surprises.


The accurate sound and non-fatiguing character definitely comes from the flat frequency response (assuming you don't have major problems with room acoustics).

Yes, the STF-2 raised my eyebrows occasionally when it was pulling extended use HT duty. I was thinking "Damn! For a single 10" driver with one 3" vent, that little guy cranks out some pretty surprising levels of bass."

For music duty, I found it difficult to localize (a good thing), and it seemed to fill the entire sound stage easily. I often found myself glancing over at it (again with a bit of surprise), at its ability on music.
Ed Mullen
Director - Technology and Customer Relations

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"What we do in life, echoes in eternity."



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